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CAE "Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis"
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CAE "Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis"
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This has been a sign in goats starting from there back legs

Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a lentiviral infection of goats which may lead to chronic disease of the joints and on rare occasions encephalitis in goat kids less than six months of age. The CAE virus is intimately associated with white blood cells; therefore, any body secretions which contain white blood cells are potential sources of virus to other goats in the herd. Since not all goats that become infected with CAE virus progress to disease, it is important to test goats routinely for infection by means of a serology test which detects viral antibodies in the serum.


We have had numerous inquiries about CAE virus, how to test for it, and most importantly, how to take steps to control the infection in goat herds. It is important to remember that ‘goat infection status, not clinical disease, is the element of interest in assessing risk factors and designing control programs for CAE virus’ (Rowe & East, 1997).

 What are the major means of spread of the virus?
The CAE virus is primarily transmitted to kids via colostrum in the first few feedings after birth. Blood (e.g., contaminated instruments such as needles, dehorners,saliva etc, and open wounds) is regarded as the second most common way of spread. Contact transmission between adult goats is considered to be rare except during lactation.

Is it okay to drink raw milk containing the infectious CAE virus?
There is NO evidence that the CAE virus is transmissible to humans. However, there are other serious human pathogens which have been transmitted through raw milk. Consult your veterinarian regarding the public health hazards of consuming raw milk

How often should I test my animals?
Twice a year initially followed by annual testing is suggested for herds which are primarily negative, with testing before kidding recommended. Any new animals brought into the herd should be quarantined and tested twice (at least 30 days apart) before introduction with other negative animals. In addition to CAE infection, new goats should be tested for Johne’s disease, and Brucellosis as a biosecurity screen. For herds with both positive and negative animals, negative animals should be tested more often to adjust the milking order so that negative animals are milked first


REFERENCES

1. Rowe, JD and NE East: Risk factors for transmission and methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection. Vet Clinics No Amer 13:35-53, 1997.

2. Adams, DS, et al: Transmission and control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Am J Vet Res 44:1670-1675, 1983.

3. Vander Schalie, J, et al: Evaluation of a kinetic enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-specific antibodies. J Vet Diagn Invest 6, 30-33, 1994.

4. Evermann, JF: Control of CAE virus takes work and periodic testing. United Caprine News. Winter, 2002 update.

5. Steele, JH: History, trends, and extent of pasteurization. J. Am Vet Med Assoc 217:175-178, 2000.

6. Knowles, DP Jr: laboratory diagnostic tests for retrovirus infections of small ruminants. Vet Clinics No Amer 13:1-11, 1997.

7. Greenwood, PL et al.: Prevalence, spread and control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in dairy goat herds in New South Wales. Aust. Vet. J. 72:341-345, 1995.

8. Nord, K et al.: Control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Norwegian goat herd. Acta Vet Scand 39:109-117, 1998.

9. Ozyoruk, F et al.: Monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of the surface glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Potential application to competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies in goat sera. Clin Diag Lab Immunol 8:44-51, 2001.

10. Cebra, C and M Cebra: Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection. In Pugh, DG: Sheep and Goat Medicine, W.B. Saunders, Co. Phil, 2002, pp 388-389.

11. DeMartini, JC et al: Comparison of a Maedi-visna virus fusion protein ELISA with other assays for detecting sheep infected with No. American ovine lentivirus strains. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 71:29-40, 1999.

12. Fieni, F et al.: Presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infected cells in flushing media following oviductal-stage embryo collection. Therigenol 57:931-940, 2002.

13. Rolland, M et al.: Characterization of an Irish caprine lentivirus strain - SRLV phylogeny revisited. Virus Res 85:29-39, 2002.

14. Peterhans, E et al: Routes of transmission and consequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) infection and eradication schemes. Vet Res: 35:257-274, 2004.

15. deAndres, D, et al: Diagnostic tests for small ruminant lentiviruses. Vet Microbiol 107: 49-62, 2005.

AND   Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab